3.1. Sequences

Examples 3.1.10(b):

Define x1 = b and let xn = xn - 1 / 2 for all n > 1. Then this sequence converges for any number b.
The proof is very easy using the theorem on monotone, bounded sequences: In either case the sequence converges. As to finding the actual limit, we proceed as follows: we already know that the limit exists. Call that limit L. Then we have:
lim xn = L = lim xn + 1
But then we have that
L = lim xn + 1 = lim xn / 2 = 1/2 lim xn = 1/2 L
so that we have the equation for the unknown limit L:
L = 1/2 L
Therefore, the limit must be zero.

This proof illustrates the advantage of knowing that a sequence converges. Based on that fact it was easy to determine the actual limit of this recursively defined sequence. On the other hand, it would be very difficult to try to establish convergence based on the original definition of a convergent sequence.

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