7.2. Integration Techniques
Proposition 7.2.9: The Trapezoid Rule
Let f be a twice continuously differentiable function defined
on [a, b] and set
We first prove a simpler version of the trapezoid rule using the Mean Value
Theorem for integrals and integration by parts.
K = sup{ f''(x) , x [a, b] }If h = (b  a) / n, where n is a positive integer, then
where R(n) < K/12 (ba) h^{2}.
Simple Trapezoid Rule: Let f be a function defined on the interval [0, 1]
so that f is twice continuously differentiable. Then there
exists a number c [0, 1] so
that
The trick to prove this statement is to define a function
f(x) dx = 1/2 (f(0) + f(1))  1/12 f''(c)
v(x) = 1/2 x (1  x)which has the properties:

f(x) dx =  v''(x) f(x) dxUsing integration by parts with g'(x) = v''(x) we get:
v''(x) f(x) dx = v'(1) f(1)  v'(0) f(0)  v'(x) f'(x) dx =Again using integration by parts with g'(x) = v'(x) we get:
= 1/2 f(1)  1/2 f(0)  v'(x) f'(x) dx
v'(x) f'(x) dx = v(1) f'(1)  v(0) f'(0)  v(x) f''(x) dx =where we used the Mean Value Theorem for Integration with some number c inside the interval [0, 1]. Taking everything together (careful with the negative signs) we then have:
 v(x) f''(x) dx =
 f''(c) v(x) dx =  f''(c) 1/12
f(x) dx = 1/2 f(1) + 1/2 f(0) + v'(x) f'(x) dx =which proves the simple Trapezoid Rule.
= 1/2 f(1) + 1/2 f(0)  1/12 f''(c)
To prove the general Trapezoid Rule, assume that f is defined on [a, b]. Let h = (b  a) / n, pick an integer j, and define the function u(x) = a + jh + xh for x [0, 1]. The composite function g(x) = f(u(x)) is twice continuously differentiable and defined on the interval [0, 1] so that the simple trapezoid rule applies:
g(x) dx = 1/2 g(0) + 1/2 g(1)  1/12 g''(c)But g(0) = f(u(0)) = f(a +jh), g(1) = f(u(1)) = f(a + (j+1)h), and g''(x) = h^{2} f''(x). Moreover
1/2 g(0) + 1/2 g(1)  1/12 g''(c) = g(x) dx = f(u(x)) dx =Therefore:
= 1/h f(u(x)) u'(x) dx = 1/h f(u) du
Summing this equation from j = 0 to j = n1 gives:
where
which finishes the proof.